Forms of expression that are motivated by, demonstrate or encourage hostility towards a group or a person because of their membership of that group. Since hate speech may encourage or accompany hate crimes, the two concepts are interlinked. States differ considerably as to which forms of expression constitute hate crimes. Direct and immediate threats of violence, as well as incitement to violence, are crimes in all OSCE participating States, hence these crimes can be prosecuted even without a bias motive. Beyond this, however, there is no consensus on what other forms of speech should be prohibited.